As the commemorations of the Victory Day rolled over Russia, elaborate parades showcasing the military might and accusations of the rise of neo-Nazism in the former Soviet republics went hand in hand. Pro-kremlin media coverage heavily focused on people in the Baltics being allegedly prosecuted for different beliefs and claiming that neo-nazism is on the rise in these countries.
Before discussing communications surrounding the end of the World War II, it is important to look at the current context. In a recent move, a legal ban on comparisons between the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany has been proposed by the Russian President and lawmakers. The proposed bill also aims at banning any attempts to deny the ‘humanitarian mission of the USSR in liberating the countries of Europe’.
However, the resolution adopted by the European Parliament in 2019 pointed out the responsibility of both Soviet and Nazi regimes for the outbreak of World War II. Notably, it stresses that the end of World War II did not bring liberation and peace to some of the European countries, which remained under direct Soviet occupation or influence.
Meanwhile, 54% of those polled by an independent Russian polling organization Levada Centre in May 2021, considered the liberation of European countries from Nazi occupation being one of the main results of the victory in the World War II, in parallel to 7% of the respondents naming the expansion of the sphere of influence of the Stalinist regime onto the countries of Eastern Europe.
It is also important to remember that in April, the Russian President Vladimir Putin signed a law that increased penalties for justifying Nazism and introduced punishment for "public dissemination of knowingly false information" about the veterans of World War II. This bill was passed by the Russian State Duma in March, soon after a judge ruled that the jailed opposition leader Alexei Navalny was guilty of defaming a World War II veteran. Offenders could now be facing possible sentences of up to five years in jail. Moreover, as proposed by the Chairman of the State Duma Vyacheslav Volodin, the regulation should be considered as model for the CIS members and Tashkent Treaty countries.
Under Russian federal regulations, those, who ‘took part in military operations to eliminate the nationalist underground in the territories of Ukraine, Belarus, Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia from January 1, 1944, to December 31, 1951,’ are eligible for the status of veteran. Notably, in Lithuania, a part of traumatic and complex history of occupation - the struggle by Forest Brothers and armed resistance against the Soviets, is heralded as the leading force in the struggle for freedom.
So how do these latest developments translate into the false and misleading claims pursued by pro-Kremlin media and fit into the larger picture of cascading official Moscow’s narratives?
On April 27 - May 10, 2021, DebunkEU.org spotted and analysed 82 cases of disinformation on the Victory Day (May 9) celebration in relation to Lithuania. These hits in Lithuanian and Russian languages, 17 and 65 hits, respectively. In 2020, DebunkEU.org team found 102 articles with false and misleading content.
The decrease in scope was accompanied by a lesser focus on Lithuania within the pro-Kremlin media coverage: it was more often mentioned in a passing manner rather than being the main object of disinformation, except for the hits that were published by the Kremlin mouthpieces specifically targeting the country, namely the Lithuanian branches of Sputnik and Baltnews.
Whilst Lithuania was out of the focus, it was Ukraine and Latvia to take the blow of disinformation: the former amidst escalating conflict with Russia overall and in reaction to the Embroidery March in Kyiv, and the latter because of the words by the Latvian President Egils Levits that World War II was not Latvia’s war as it did not take part init and the fact that the police fenced off the area surrounding the Victory Monument in Riga on May 9.
In 2020, which marked the 75th anniversary of the end of World War II, roughly half of the articles targeting Lithuania in relation to the Victory Day were published on May 8th. Most of them were a reaction (by experts and Russia’s top officials, including the Russian President Vladimir Putin) to a joint declaration by the presidents of the Baltic countries calling for truth and justice in Moscow's responsibility for the outbreak of the war and the brutal incorporation of the three states into the USSR and the subsequent terror of the totalitarian regime.
The statement was echoed in several articles this year as well. Such publications contravened the Putin regime’s endeavour to appropriate the memory of the World War II and to make it a tool of both domestic and internationally oriented propaganda. To achieve such effect, parallels are drawn between the Soviet victory and current Russian foreign politics, military power, exceptionality, and the role of ‘liberator’.
This year, the spike of the articles on celebrating the Victory Day in relation to Lithuania came on May 9th, as the hits were published on dedicated leftist Facebook groups and pro-Kremlin media to remind of/commemorate the day and to reflect on how it was celebrated in the country. Such content included mentions of Lithuania as a Baltic state in generalising claims projected from the speech by the President of Latvia.
Attempts to erase the memory of the Victory Day was the leading narrative in terms of articles, with the subnarrative The memory of WWII in Lithuania is blurred being the largest generator of hits classified under this category of messages. The narrative was actively promoted by Sputnik via a number of articles dated April 28 to May 9. Publications used the very same quote in Russian and Lithuanian (although translation came in slightly differing versions) by the Deputy Director of the Institute of History and Politics of the Moscow State Pedagogical University Vladimir Shapovalov that the memory of WWII in Europe, including the Baltics, has been blurred. The appropriation of the same quote may evidence lower importance and fewer efforts attached to Lithuania and Victory Day this year, on the contrary to Latvia and Ukraine.
In addition, the narrative pursued within problematic information directed at Lithuania since the very regaining of independence was a leading one within the analysis as well, namely Lithuania and other countries expanded their territories with the help from the Soviets. The messages included traditional claims of the Soviets giving Vilnius and Klaipėda to Lithuania as a gift.
Attempts to erase the memory of the Victory Day was the leading narrative in terms of DebunkReach®, just as it did by articles. However, it was Demolishing/desecrating of monuments to soviet soldiers that took the lead. In addition, it reflects the trends highlighted by the Lithuanian Security Department (VSD) in their latest National Threat Assessment: Russia has been recently pursuing a historical policy which increasingly relies on weaponising legal norms and advancing their extraterritorial application, as in the case of amending the Russian Criminal Code foreseeing criminal liability for destruction or damage to graves or statues of Soviet soldiers in 2020.
Russophobia was the most often used word accompanying the false and misleading coverage regarding the Victory Day and Lithuania. Russophobia - the cornerstone and the carte blanche of Kremlin propaganda - allows dismissing any critique towards the Putin regime as irrational hysteria, hatred and oppression of the different-minded.
The phrase that The memory of World War II was blurred was the second most pronounced association with the object of analysis, followed by two closely related phrases: Idolisation of false heroes and Rebirth of Nazism.
The use of those narratives is clearly showcased in the examples found throughout the monitored period.
Case №1 Neo-Nazism is on the rise in Europe